What To Do If You're Stuck
When stuck on ice, snow, mud, or wet grass, the vehicle should be rocked gently back and forth by repeatedly shifting the gear lever from drive to reverse on automatic transmissions or reverse to second on manual transmissions. This should be done with as little tyre spinning as possible. The force caused by a rapidly spinning tyre can cause an explosion by literally tearing the tyre apart. Some vehicles are capable of bringing a tyre to this failing point in as little as five seconds.
Using Your Spare
Many newer vehicles come equipped with a temporary spare. These tyres are usually much smaller than the other tyres on your car. It is important to realize that these spares have far more limitations than a typical tyre, including speed and recommended driving distance. Some spare tyres even require the use of a special canister to inflate the tire.
You should familiarize yourself with the spare by reading the owner's manual and the sidewall of the spare. And remember, check the air pressure of the spare frequently.
Three main factors contribute to the loss of traction on wet roads known as hydroplaning:
Vehicle speed. As speed increases, wet traction is considerably reduced.
Water depth. The deeper the water, the sooner you will lose traction, although even thin water layers can cause a loss of traction, even at low speeds.
Tyre tread depth. As your tyres become worn, their ability to resist hydroplaning is reduced.
Since hydroplaning can result in a complete loss of traction and vehicle control, you should always reduce speed with consideration to the traffic around you.
Driving On Ice And Snow
All-season tyres are designed to provide higher levels of snow traction than non-all-season tyres. Your tyres may be all-season tyres if you find the letters "M+S" molded into the sidewall near the bead. These letters mean "Mud and Snow." However, because of differences between US and European regulations, if you require all-season tyres, you should always check with your tyre retailer that the tyres you have chosen are suitable. You should not rely on the "M+S" marking alone.
Even the best all-season tyres will not provide acceptable levels of traction if you drive too fast in snow/ice conditions, You should allow at least 12 times more stopping distance on wintry roads.
The fitment of winter tyres is strongly recommended when temperatures are below 70C. Winter tires offer significantly improved braking and traction over summer and all-season tyres. Because of this, in some countries, their fitment is mandatory. However, even where fitment is optional, the safety benefits in all conditions when the temperature is below 70C are overwhelming. At this temperature, winter tyres provide better grip and traction on dry and wet roads as well as snow and ice conditions.
For Safe Winter Driving
Fit winter tyres.
Reduce your speed. Even good road conditions can deteriorate quickly.
Increase your stopping distance - at least 12 times more than on dry roads. You may not always need that much distance, but when you do, you'll be glad you were playing it safe.
Check the condition of your tyres. Worn tyres provide less grip